A Critical Analysis of Prospect 3 Based on Nation and Macalister's Four-Strand Framework.

Document Type : Original Article


1 English Department, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran

2 English Department, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch,Shahrood, Iran



Prospect Series are English textbooks published by the Ministry of Education to enable junior high school students in Iran to develop their communicative competence. Using Nation and Macalister’s (2010) four-strand framework for textual analysis, this study evaluated different sections of Prospect 3 to measure the degree to which the textbook established balance between activities targeting language-focused learning, meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, and fluency development. To maximize validity, the sections were rigorously reconsidered several times in light of the four-strand framework and the Teacher's Guide instructions. Analyses of the activities and instructions given to teach sections in the Student Book, as well as in the Review Section and the Workbook demonstrated an approximate balance between the four strands as long as teachers are informed by and act in compliance with the Teacher’s Guide. The results revealed that, in line with CLT principles, the majority of tasks in Prospect 3 involved learners with familiar, high-frequency themes in classroom events and demanded them to participate in activities individually, in pairs, and in groups. Many sections fulfilled a multipurpose aim by integrating foci on two or more of the strands simultaneously, hence, developing fluency and output production and allowing students to develop their communicative competence.


Volume 1, Issue 1
February 2022
Pages 58-69
  • Receive Date: 14 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 25 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 18 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 18 February 2022